"Trying to do mathematics without knowing basic number facts is like trying to play the piano without knowing where the notes are."

- John Mighton - The End of Ignorance

Fluency Tools



Pattern Sheets

Deco Trees



Fluency without Equivocation

This article by Dr. Scott Baldridge, Ben McCarty, and Robin Ramos explains the difference between building fluency and rote memorization drills.

Watch FACT Charter School's Melanie Gutierrez deliver fluency in her kindergarten class (0:00 - 7:30).

As a sixth grade teacher, I devoted at least 25% of every lesson to improving my students’ number sense through Sprints, skip counting, and sequenced call-response drills.

Developing student fluency is a major component of a successful elementary school Math program.

While there is no hard fast rule, I recommend that teachers devote the following percentages of class time to fluency:

  • Kindergarten:  35-40%

  • First Grade:  30-35%

  • Second grade:  30-35%

  • Third grade:  25-30%

  • Fourth grade:  25-30%

  • Fifth grade:  25-30%



Watch Bill Davidson deliver a Sprint (0:00 - 10:50) and skip counting (10:50 - 13:10) to sixth graders at FACT Charter School.